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The Omic team of technologists, futurists and health experts have combined evidence-based science with the finest ingredients to help you feel your absolute best.

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Prebiotic capsules

Our capsules are made from prebiotic acacia fiber, which stimulates the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Dark bottles

We use dark bottles to help prevent light-induced degradation of our supplements.

Thoughtful packaging

We carefully package every supplement so that you receive them in the best condition.

The finest ingredients

All of our ingredients are carefully researched, sourced and tested.
They are selected with science, purity, potency and form in mind.

Valerian is a medicinal herb.

Sleep

Anxiety

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Turmeric is a root.

Inflammation

Cognition

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Shilajit is a resinous substance.

Inflammation

Cognition

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Cordyceps is a type of fungus.

Inflammation

Energy

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Ziziphus is a genus of shrubs and trees.

Sleep

Calmness

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Cannabis is a plant.

Inflammation

Anxiety

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Shilajit

Shilajit is a resinous substance that is found that is forced out from between rock layers in the Himalayas during the heat of the summer months. It contains a mixture of herbs and minerals from decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries earlier.1 The actual composition changes depending on the geographical region, environmental factors such as humidity and temperature, as well as the presence of plants, molds and bacteria.2 Shilajit is well-known to occur in the Himalayas but is also found in Afghanistan, the Caucasus and Ural ranges, as well as in the Northern Pollock ranges in Australia3 and in the Chilean Andes.4

Shilajit has been used for over 3000 years in traditional Hindu Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medicine in Tibet and India. It is described as a “Rasayana,” a rejuvenator3 supporting a youthful long lifespan.1 Its Sanskrit meaning is “conqueror of mountains and destroyer of weakness.”

Shilajit was also used secretly in the former USSR to enhance the mental and physical performance of Olympic athletes and special military forces.2

Constituents & Mechanisms of action

Humic substances make up 80-85% of Shilajit.5 These are organic compounds that occur in humus that makes up soil. Of these, Fulvic acid is the most well-known.4 Trace minerals including Phosphate, Silicon, Sulphur, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium and Iron make up the rest of the compound.5

Early studies indicated that Shilajit has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, analgesic, immunomodulator, anti-diabetic, lipid modulating, nootropic, anxiolytic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activity. It also stops the release of histamine.3 Shilajit seems to increase the production of ATP (energy) in cells, as well as increase Acetylcholine, necessary for cognitive functioning.2

Few human intervention studies have been undertaken. However, Shilajit shows promise in supporting ovulation and sperm production,1 and has been used as a potent aphrodisiac and memory enhancer.6 It is also an adaptogenic agent, improving the body’s response to stress.7 Indeed this was apparently extensively studies behind the iron curtain, although these studies have not been published.2 Interestingly, Shilajit has been shown to hasten healing of fractures.8

Safety

Initial animal studies have indicated that Shilajit is well tolerated with no adverse effects.2,9

References

  1. Chaudhary, S., Singh, A.K. & Dwivedi, K. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF SHILAJIT A REVIEW. 2(2016).
  2. Stohs, S.J. Safety and efficacy of shilajit (mumie, moomiyo). Phytother Res 28, 475-479 (2014).
  3. Khokra, S. Therapeutic Potentials of “Shilajit Rasayana”-A Review. 1(2009).
  4. Carrasco-Gallardo, C., Guzmán, L. & Maccioni, R.B. Shilajit: a natural phytocomplex with potential procognitive activity. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2012, 674142 (2012).
  5. Al-Salman, F., Ali Redha, A. & Al-Zaimoor, Z. Inorganic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Shilajit. (2020).
  6. Azhar, M., Quddusi, N., Akram, U., Anjum, A. & Hannan. Pharmacologial Activities Of Salajit (Asphaltum)-A Unani Drug a* a b b c d. (2011).
  7. Agarwal, S., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K. & Khar, R. Shilajit: A review. Phytother Res 21, 401-405 (2007).
  8. Sadeghi, S.M.H., et al. Efficacy of Momiai in Tibia Fracture Repair: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Altern Complement Med 26, 521-528 (2020).
  9. Kumar, S. SHILAJIT GOLD ARTICLE. (2020).

Ziziphus jujube

spinosa

Ziziphus (also known as Jujube, red date and Chinese date) has a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to calm the mind and reduce insomnia.1 It is native to Asia and southern Europe. Ziziphus fruit has been used as a food and medicine for thousands of years in China,2 where it is known as the “fruits of life.”3 Technically Ziziphus jujuba refers to the fruit of the plant and Ziziphus spinosa refers to the seeds found in the single hard kernel of the fruit. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, the seeds are most commonly used for sleep.1

Constituents & Mechanisms of Action

Ziziphus seeds contains many bioactive compounds including:

  • Alkaloids e.g. fragufoline, sanjoinin A
  • Saponins e.g. jububosides
  • Flavonoids e.g. spinosyn, epigallocatechin
  • Alkaloids e.g. sanjoinine, zizyphusine
  • Unsaturated fatty acids e.g. lauric acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid
  • Amino acids e.g. proline, alanine, valine, glutamic acid

The bioactives in Ziziphus exert their effect partially via the GABA system in the brain. GABA is the main calming neurotransmitter and Ziziphus partially binds to the GABA-A receptors. The resultant chemical cascade in the brain promotes mild sleep induction while limiting receptor desensitization and thus the addictive effects often seen with pharmaceuticals such as Diazepam. Ziziphus also acts on the Serotonin system and may exert neuroprotection by inhibition of NMDA-induced cell death by inhibiting free radical generation3 it’s effect are likely to be greater than the sum of its parts.

Efficacy

Ziziphus improves sleeps, calming and protects neurons. When compared with Diazepam, Ziziphus is slower acting but lasts longer with less impairment of learning and memory and less addictive effects.1 In fact, Ziziphus may improve memory.3 Ziziphus may also lower cholesterol and improve menopausal symptoms.3

Safety

While research is continuing, a low dose of Ziziphus may be effective and safe as an ongoing support for sleep,1 with adverse effects similar to placebo.4

References

  1. Shergis, J.L., et al. Ziziphus spinosa seeds for insomnia: A review of chemistry and psychopharmacology. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 34, 38-43 (2017).
  2. Ji, X., et al. Isolation, structures and bioactivities of the polysaccharides from jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.): A review. Food Chem 227, 349-357 (2017).
  3. Rodríguez Villanueva, J. & Rodríguez Villanueva, L. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mills. Phytother Res 31, 347-365 (2017).
  4. Yeung, W.F., et al. Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Sleep Med Rev 16, 497-507 (2012).

Valeriana officinalis

Part used: Root

Valerian is a medicinal herb native to North America, Asia and Europe. The root of Valerian has been used since the late sixteenth century.1 It is used in Traditional Western Herbal Medicine, mainly to treat insomnia especially where this is associated with “nervous conditions.” Valerian is also used for anxiety, generalized pain, headache, and irritable bowel syndrome. It is listed as an approved herb in the German Commission E monographs.

Constituents & Mechanisms of Action

Valerian contains a number of plant chemicals, including:2

  • Valeric acid, a terpene of the volatile oil
  • Iridoids
  • Alkaloids
  • Lignans
  • Free amino acids including:
    • GABA
    • Tyrosine
    • Arginine
    • Glutamine

It is thought that the terpenes are responsible for the effects of Valerian. However, it is more likely that the active constituents work together to produce the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of Valerian. While the full mechanisms are still being worked out, Valerian seems to increase the concentration of GABA in the brain3 and by modulating the GABA-A receptors in the brain producing a sense of calm and improving sleep.4

Efficacy

Valerian root has been shown to be effective in improving:

  • Sleep5
  • Hot flushes in menopausal women6
  • Anxiety7
  • Response to stress8

Safety

According to researchers, Valerian is safer than pharmaceutical hypnotics, such as Diazepam, while improving sleep quality.9

References

  1. Plushner, S.L. Valerian: Valeriana officinalis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 57, 328, 333, 335 (2000).
  2. Hadley, S. & Petry, J.J. Valerian. Am Fam Physician 67, 1755-1758 (2003).
  3. Kim, J., et al. Natural Products from Single Plants as Sleep Aids: A Systematic Review. Journal of medicinal food 21, 433-444 (2018).
  4. Savage, K., Firth, J., Stough, C. & Sarris, J. GABA-modulating phytomedicines for anxiety: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical evidence. Phytother Res 32, 3-18 (2018).
  5. Bent, S., Padula, A., Moore, D., Patterson, M. & Mehling, W. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 119, 1005-1012 (2006).
  6. Jenabi, E., Shobeiri, F., Hazavehei, S.M.M. & Roshanaei, G. The effect of Valerian on the severity and frequency of hot flashes: A triple-blind randomized clinical trial. Women & health 58, 297-304 (2018).
  7. Kohnen, R. & Oswald, W.D. The effects of valerian, propranolol, and their combination on activation, performance, and mood of healthy volunteers under social stress conditions. Pharmacopsychiatry 21, 447-448 (1988).
  8. Cropley, M., Cave, Z., Ellis, J. & Middleton, R.W. Effect of kava and valerian on human physiological and psychological responses to mental stress assessed under laboratory conditions. Phytother Res 16, 23-27 (2002).
  9. Kelber, O., Nieber, K. & Kraft, K. Valerian: no evidence for clinically relevant interactions. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014, 879396 (2014).

Cordyceps militaris

Part used: fruiting bodies

Cordyceps is a type of fungus that parasitizes insects. It is found throughout the world and is especially abundant in tropical forests and humid regions.1

Cordyceps has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of fatigue, low libido, as a recovery aid after illness, and to enhance physical strength and endurance.2 While there are many species of Cordyceps, C. sinesis and C. militaris have been the most used and the most studied with C. militaris being considered a suitable substitute for the more extensively studied C. sinesis.3

Constituents & Mechanism of Actions

Cordyceps species contain a wide variety of compounds including polysaccharides, sterols, and amino acids. However, it is thought that nucleosides including cordycepsin (3’-deoxyadenosine), adenine and inosine acting on the purinergic receptors are responsible for most of the effects in the human body.3

The compounds in Cordyceps have, amongst other actions been shown to be:1,3

  • Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Immune enhancing
  • Anti-tumor
  • Anti-diabetic
  • Anti-aging4
  • Energy enhancing5

In the laboratory, (in vitro) Cordyceps has also been shown to:

  • Inhibit the breakdown of Acetylcholine6 – critical for focus, learning and memory
  • Increase BDNF, promoting the survival of nerve cells7

While the exact mechanism are still being worked out, it is likely that all of these actions contribute to Cordyceps’ effects as a nootropic.8

Efficacy

Cordyceps has a long traditional use as a “powerhouse of energy.”9 However, modern clinical trials are only just starting to be done and indicate that in humans, Cordyceps increases aerobic capacity10,11

In animal studies, Cordyceps has been shown to:

  • Improve cognitive function12,13
  • Improve learning and memory14
  • Improve the response to stress15

Safety

Cordyceps is generally well tolerated. Mild side-effects such as nausea and diarrhoea have been described.16

References

  1. Liu, Y., et al. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015, 575063 (2015).
  2. Lin B, L.S. Cordyceps as an Herbal Drug. in Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clnical Aspects (ed. Benzie IFF, W.-G.S.) (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton (Fl), 2011).
  3. Olatunji, O.J., et al. The genus Cordyceps: An extensive review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Fitoterapia 129, 293-316 (2018).
  4. Ji, D.B., et al. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phytother Res 23, 116-122 (2009).
  5. Dai, G., Bao, T., Xu, C., Cooper, R. & Zhu, J.S. CordyMax Cs-4 improves steady-state bioenergy status in mouse liver. J Altern Complement Med 7, 231-240 (2001).
  6. Tsai, C.H., Yen, Y.H. & Yang, J.P. Finding of polysaccharide-peptide complexes in Cordyceps militaris and evaluation of its acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. J Food Drug Anal 23, 63-70 (2015).
  7. Lee, S.H., et al. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils. J Exerc Rehabil 12, 69-78 (2016).
  8. Shashidhar, M.G., Giridhar, P., Udaya Sankar, K. & Manohar, B. Bioactive principles from Cordyceps sinensis: A potent food supplement – A review. J Funct Foods 5, 1013-1030 (2013).
  9. Ashraf, S.A., et al. Cordycepin for Health and Wellbeing: A Potent Bioactive Metabolite of an Entomopathogenic Cordyceps Medicinal Fungus and Its Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Potential. Molecules 25(2020).
  10. Steinkraus, D.C. & Whitfield, J.B. Chinese Caterpillar Fungus and World Record Runners. American Entomologist 40, 235-239 (1994).
  11. Xiao, Y., et al. Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly humans given a fermentation product of Cordyceps CS-4. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise – MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE 31(1999).
  12. He, M.T., et al. Protective role of Cordyceps militaris in Aβ(1-42)-induced Alzheimer’s disease in vivo. Food Sci Biotechnol 28, 865-872 (2019).
  13. Cai, Z.L., et al. Effects of cordycepin on Y-maze learning task in mice. European journal of pharmacology 714, 249-253 (2013).
  14. Gong, M.F., Xu, J.P., Chu, Z.Y. & Luan, J. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis sporocarp on learning-memory in mice]. Zhong Yao Cai 34, 1403-1405 (2011).
  15. Koh, J.H., Kim, K.M., Kim, J.M., Song, J.C. & Suh, H.J. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 26, 691-694 (2003).
  16. Hu, R., et al. Comparison of drug safety data obtained from the monitoring system, literature, and social media: An empirical proof from a Chinese patent medicine. PloS one 14, e0222077 (2019).

Hemp Cannabinoids (non-THC)

Form used: aerial parts

Cannabis is one of the most ancient non-food crops cultivated by humans. It has been used in the Traditional Medicines of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and many regions of Asia.1 Only two to three generations ago, Cannabis was routinely used in Europe and the USA to treat a variety of conditions, from migraine to nausea to Parkinson’s disease.2

Constituents & Mechanism of Actions

The Cannabis sativa plant contains over 500 known compounds. 3 The most well-known group of these compounds are the phytocannabinoids, of which there are over 100 different types. These phytocannabinoidss can broadly divided into:

  • Psychoactive compounds such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  • Non-psychoactive compounds including Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabigerol (CBG) and other plant chemicals such as Cannabis terpenes.4

The phytocannabinoids all have an effect on the body’s own cannabinoid system, binding to the Endocannabinoid receptors found throughout the body.5

Omic Focus uses the THC-free Cannabinoids, CBD (Cannabidiol) and CBG (Cannabigerol), as well as Cannabis Terpenes in a synergistic mix.

The actions of CBD and CBG include:1

  • Neuroprotection (protecting nerves against damage) via anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune mechanisms1,6 as well as increasing glucose uptake by the neurons.7
  • Pain-relief
  • Anti-nausea
  • Anti-psychotic
  • Immune support
  • Reduction of the effects of stress8
  • Anti-anxiety effects9
  • Anti-inflammatory4
  • Sleep induction10

Plant terpenes have diverse effects11 including:

  • Anti-anxiety
  • Immune enhancing
  • Inhibition of the breakdown of Acetylcholine – pivotal to focus, learning and memory

The Cannabinoids and other plant compounds such as the Terpenes work synergistically together in the plant and when consumed by humans.4

Efficacy

CBD shows promise in treating anxiety, depression and psychosis.12 CBD may potentially also treat disorders of the central nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Epilepsy.1

Research on CBD, CBG and Cannabis Terpenes as nootropics are yet to be done. However, these cannabinoids are likely to improve brain health by

  • Decreasing anxiety
  • Protecting neurons
  • Regulating mood
  • Supporting a healthy stress response

Safety

CBD (without THC) is considered safe and well tolerated.13

References

  1. Giacoppo, S., Mandolino, G., Galuppo, M., Bramanti, P. & Mazzon, E. Cannabinoids: new promising agents in the treatment of neurological diseases. Molecules 19, 18781-18816 (2014).
  2. Russo, E.B. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga, science, and sobriquet. Chem Biodivers 4, 1614-1648 (2007).
  3. Solymosi, K. & Köfalvi, A. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora’s Box? Mini Rev Med Chem 17, 1223-1291 (2017).
  4. Russo, E. Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British journal of pharmacology 163, 1344-1364 (2011).
  5. Russo, E. & Guy, G.W. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Med Hypotheses 66, 234-246 (2006).
  6. Gugliandolo, A., Pollastro, F., Grassi, G., Bramanti, P. & Mazzon, E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid. Int J Mol Sci 19(2018).
  7. Köfalvi, A., et al. Stimulation of brain glucose uptake by cannabinoid CB2 receptors and its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropharmacology 110, 519-529 (2016).
  8. Akirav, I. Cannabinoids and glucocorticoids modulate emotional memory after stress. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 37, 2554-2563 (2013).
  9. Campos, A.C. & Guimarães, F.S. Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199, 223-230 (2008).
  10. Babson, K.A., Sottile, J. & Morabito, D. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Curr Psychiatry Rep 19, 23 (2017).
  11. Andre, C.M., Hausman, J.F. & Guerriero, G. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Front Plant Sci 7, 19 (2016).
  12. Campos, A.C., Moreira, F.A., Gomes, F.V., Del Bel, E.A. & Guimarães, F.S. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367, 3364-3378 (2012).
  13. Iseger, T.A. & Bossong, M.G. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophrenia research 162, 153-161 (2015).

Curcuma longa

Parts used: rhizome

Turmeric is an ancient spice native to India. It has been used for at least 600 years in traditional medicine and religious ceremonies.1 Turmeric is commonly used not just as a flavoring agent in cooking, but also as a paste applied to the skin or added to a bath. Turmeric is a sign of auspiciousness and prosperity. It was brought to Europe by Arab traders.2

In Traditional Medicine, Turmeric is used for a wide range of effects including as a general tonic, for the treatment respiratory infections and peptic ulcers, as well as for arthritis and would healing.3

Constituents & Mechanisms of Action

Over 400 different compounds have been isolated from Turmeric.4

The polyphenols called Curcuminoids are the most active constituents of Turmeric and give it the yellow color that is so familiar in spice blends and curries. Turmeric also contains a number of essential oils,5 flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanin4 and polypeptides that display biological activity.6

Curcumin is the most prominent and well-studied of these bioactive compounds.7 It has a broad range of effects via multiple signaling pathways.1

Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-carcinogenic, hypoglycemic, anti-rhematic and hepato-protective8 and neuro-protective properties.4

It is perhaps best known for its anti-inflammatory effects.9 However, the anti-oxidant effects of curcumin may be associated with its cognitive enhancing effects by increasing glutathione (the master anti-oxidant), stimulating the growth of neurons and increasing Acetylcholine.10

Efficacy

Human clinical trials are limited. However, Turmeric / curcumin have been shown to be effective in

  • Inflammatory conditions such as Ulcerative colitis11
  • Depression12
  • Cognitive improvements such as memory and attention13
  • Improving inflammatory markers and energy14

Safety

Turmeric and curcumin are generally recognized as safe. Mild stomach upset may occur.15

References

  1. Gopinath, H. & Karthikeyan, K. Turmeric: A condiment, cosmetic and cure. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 84, 16-21 (2018).
  2. Rajagopalan, R. & Suvarna, Y. TURMERIC: THE SPICE KING OF HEALTH. (2015).
  3. Krishnaswamy, K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17 Suppl 1, 265-268 (2008).
  4. Ayati, Z., et al. Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Traditional Uses of Curcuma spp. and Pharmacological Profile of Two Important Species (C. longa and C. zedoaria): A Review. Curr Pharm Des 25, 871-935 (2019).
  5. Hwang, K.-W., et al. Levels of curcuminoid and essential oil compositions in turmerics (Curcuma longa L.) grown in Korea. Applied Biological Chemistry 59, 209-215 (2016).
  6. Ramírez-Tortosa, M.C., et al. Oral administration of a turmeric extract inhibits LDL oxidation and has hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 147, 371-378 (1999).
  7. Thomas-Eapen, N.E. Turmeric: the intriguing yellow spice with medicinal properties. Explore (NY) 5, 114-115 (2009).
  8. Mirzaei, H., et al. Phytosomal curcumin: A review of pharmacokinetic, experimental and clinical studies. Biomed Pharmacother 85, 102-112 (2017).
  9. Zdrojewicz, Z., Szyca, M., Popowicz, E., Michalik, T. & Śmieszniak, B. [Turmeric – not only spice]. Pol Merkur Lekarski 42, 227-230 (2017).
  10. Howes, M.R., Perry, N.S.L., Vásquez-Londoño, C. & Perry, E.K. Role of phytochemicals as nutraceuticals for cognitive functions affected in ageing. British journal of pharmacology 177, 1294-1315 (2020).
  11. Hanai, H., et al. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4, 1502-1506 (2006).
  12. Sanmukhani, J., et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res 28, 579-585 (2014).
  13. Small, G.W., et al. Memory and Brain Amyloid and Tau Effects of a Bioavailable Form of Curcumin in Non-Demented Adults: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled 18-Month Trial. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 26, 266-277 (2018).
  14. Kawasaki, K. & et al. Effect of a Combination of Hot Water Extract of Curcuma longa and Curcumin on Serum Liver Enzymes, Inflammatory Markers, and Emotional States in Healthy Participants with Moderately High Body Mass Index ―A Randomized, Double—blind, Placebo—controlled Clinical Trial―. 薬理と治療 45, 243-252 (2017).
  15. Soleimani, V., Sahebkar, A. & Hosseinzadeh, H. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances: Review. Phytother Res 32, 985-995 (2018).

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