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Focus

Focus

From $79.00 per month

This natural nootropic provides a jitter-free boost in focus*

 

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Description

Leverage the benefits of some of the finest phytochemicals for your best mental performance.* Focus is a carefully formulated nootropic that:

  • Enhances brain function*
  • Facilitates clearer thinking*
  • Improves reaction time*
  • Prevents fatigue*
  • Reduces stress*
  • Regulates pain*
  • Sharpens focus*

Research suggests that Bacopa monnieri, used for generations in Ayurvedic medicine to rejuvenate intellect and memory (among other applications),(1) may improve spatial learning performance (in rats),(1) the speed of processing visual information, rate of learning and memory consolidation,(2) in addition to improving attention, cognitive processing and working memory.(3)

Cordyceps, a fungi, has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fatigue, low libido, as a recovery aid after illness, and to enhance physical strength and endurance.(4) While there are many species of Cordyceps, C. sinesis and C. militaris have been the most used and the most studied(5) and early research indicates that Cordyceps may have an anti-aging effect,(6) and shows promise as support in cancer,(7) inflammatory, immune and metabolic conditions.(8),(9) Cordyceps has been shown to lengthen out the time before fatigue sets in while undertaking physical activity (rats),(10) increases aerobic activity,(11),(12) and improves brain function where this is compromised.(6) While human studies are yet to be done, Cordyceps appears to work as a nootropic(13) through it anti-oxidant,(14) anti-inflammatory,(8) stress-adaptive,(15) energy increasing(9) and neuro-protective effects.(16) It is considered a “powerhouse of energy.”(17)

Lion’s Mane, is another fungi with a long history of use in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a restorative.(18) Lion’s mane helps to regenerate brain cells and improve the functioning of the hippocampus, a region of the brain responsible for processing memories and emotional responses.(19),(20) However, the exact mechanisms of action are still being studied and very few studies have been done in humans. Studies in the laboratory and in animals indicate that Lion’s Mane mushroom exhibits neuroprotective, glucose and lipid modulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immune boosting properties which are thought to contribute to its clinical effect in enhancing cognition and improving mood.(21),(22) Lion’s mane may also be useful in reducing fatigue.(23)

Of the cannabinoids (including the cannabis terpenes, CBD, CBC and CBG) CBD is the most studied. However, these cannabinoids appear to work synergistically in what is called an entourage effect.(24) CBD is well known to decrease anxiety(25) and improve mood, which would certainly improve brain functioning and performance.(26) Cannabinoids protect brain cells(27) and CBD decreases inflammation in the brain(28) which is thought to contribute to inability to concentrate and multitask.(29) CBD may also reduce the body’s response to stress,(30) making you more effective.

➜ Water-soluble. Improved absorption that’s fast acting with better results.
➜ Caffeine free. Nootropic supplements are an effective and proven alternative to energy drinks, so you are able to focus intensely without the jitters.
➜ THC free. Zero THC or high feeling. Just non-psychoactive cannabinoids for a calm, clear mind.
➜ Prebiotic capsule. All Omic capsules are made from prebiotic acacia fiber, which stimulates the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.
➜ Dark bottle. We use dark bottles to help prevent light-induced degradation, in an effort to provide you with the highest quality products.

Prebiotic capsule
Vegan friendly
Non-GMO
Zero synthetics

1. Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats.

Vollala VR, Upadhya S, Nayak S.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) (2011)

2. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects.

Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJ.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) (2001)

3. Effects of 12-Week Bacopa monnieri Consumption on Attention, Cognitive Processing, Working Memory, and Functions of Both Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Systems in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

Peth-Nui T, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Tong-Un T, Piyavhatkul N, Rangseekajee P, Ingkaninan K, Vittaya-Areekul S.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

4. Cordyceps as an Herbal Drug. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.

Lin B, Li S.
Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis (2011)

5. The genus Cordyceps: An extensive review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

Olatunji OJ, Tang J, Tola A, Auberon F, Oluwaniyi O, Ouyang Z.
Fitoterapia (2018)

6. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract.

Ji DB, Ye J, Li CL, Wang YH, Zhao J, Cai SQ.
Phytother Res (2009)

7. Anti-cancer effect of Cordyceps militaris in human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells via cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial apoptosis.

Lee HH, Lee S, Lee K, Shin YS, Kang H, Cho H.
Daru(2015)

8. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine.

Ng TB, Wang HX.
J Pharm Pharmacol (2005)

9. CordyMax Cs-4 improves steady-state bioenergy status in mouse liver.

Dai G, Bao T, Xu C, Cooper R, Zhu JS.
J Altern Complement Med (2001)

10. Effect of Polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) on Physical Fatigue Induced by Forced Swimming.

Xu YF.
Int J Med Mushrooms (2016)

11. Chinese Caterpillar Fungus and World Record Runners.

Steinkraus DC, Whitfield JB.
American Entomologist (1994)

12. Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly humans given a fermentation product of Cordyceps CS-4.

Xiao Y, Huang X, Chen G, Wang M, Zhu JS, Cooper C.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (1999)

13. Bioactive principles from Cordyceps sinensis: A potent food supplement – A review.

Shashidhar MG, Giridhar P, Udaya Sankar K, Manohar B.
Journal of functional foods (2013)

14. Anti-oxidation activity of different types of natural Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia.

Li SP, Li P, Dong TT, Tsim KW.
Phytomedicine (2001)

15. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

Koh JH, Kim KM, Kim JM, Song JC, Suh HJ.
Biol Pharm Bull (2003)

16. Neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps militaris on ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairments.

Kim YO, Kim HJ, Abu-Taweel GM, Oh J, Sung GH.
Saudi J Biol Sci (2019)

17. Cordycepin for Health and Wellbeing: A Potent Bioactive Metabolite of an Entomopathogenic Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps with Its Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Potential.

Ashraf SA, Elkhalifa AEO, Siddiqui AJ, Patel M, Awadelkareem AM, Snoussi M, Ashraf MS, Adnan M,  Hadi S.
Molecules (2020)

18. Neurological Activity of Lion’s Mane (Hericium erinaceus).

Spelman K, Sutherland E, Bagade A.
Journal of Restorative Medicine (2017)

19. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

Brandalise F, Cesaroni V, Gregori A, Repetti M, Romano C, Orrù G, Botta L, Girometta C, Guglielminetti ML, Savino E, Rossi P.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2017)

20. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

Ryu S, Kim HG, Kim JY, Kim SY, Cho KO.
J Med Food (2018)

21. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds.

Friedman M.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2015)

22. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake.

Nagano M, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, Ohnuki K.
Biomed Res (2010)

23. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus.

Liu J, DU C, Wang Y, Yu Z.
Exp Ther Med (2015)

24. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.

Russo EB.
Br J Pharmacol (2011)

25. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.

Blessing EM, Steenkamp MM, Manzanares J, Marmar CR.
Neurotherapeutics (2015)

26. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients.

Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schröder N, Nardi AE, Martín-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA.
Neuropsychopharmacology (2011)

27. A systematic review of minor phytocannabinoids with promising neuroprotective potential.

Stone NL, Murphy AJ, England TJ, O’Sullivan SE.
Br J Pharmacol (2020)

28. Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

Mori MA, Meyer E, Soares LM, Milani H, Guimarães FS, de Oliveira RMW.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry (2017)

29. Brain “fog,” inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

Theoharides TC, Stewart JM, Hatziagelaki E, Kolaitis G.
Front Neurosci (2015)

30. A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study.

Jadoon KA, Tan GD, O’Sullivan SE.
JCI Insight (2017)

Details

The main ingredients in Focus are Bacopa monnieri, Hemp Cannabinoids (non-THC), Cordyceps militaris, GABA, Lion’s Mane Extract, Shilajit and Turmeric Extract.

• Bacopa monnieri. Part used: aerial parts.
Bacopa, a native of India and Australia, also known as Brahmi, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centauries as a medical plant that rejuvenates intellect and memory. Recent research indicates that Bacopa may improve brain function involved in processing environmental inputs and enhancing learning… READ MORE

• Hemp Cannabinoids (non-THC). Part used: aerial parts.
Cannabis is one of the most ancient non-food crops cultivated by humans. It has been used in the Traditional Medicines of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and many regions of Asia. Only two to three generations ago, Cannabis was routinely used in Europe and the USA to treat a variety of… READ MORE

• Cordyceps militaris. Part used: fruiting bodies.
Cordyceps is a type of fungus that parasitizes insects. It is found throughout the world and is especially abundant in tropical forests and humid regions. Cordyceps has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the of fatigue, low libido, as a recovery aid after illness and to enhance physical… READ MORE

GABA.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring compound made in our bodies and found in foods such as tea and mushrooms. GABA is a naturally occurring amino acid that is made in the body and can also be taken as a supplement. GABA is mostly known as the main inhibitory… READ MORE

Lion’s Mane. Form used: fruiting bodies and mycelium.
Lion’s mane is a fungus that grows on old or dead broadleaf trees. It is used as food and medicine in Asia and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese and Japanese Medicine as a restorative, promoting vigour and strength. Lion’s Mane contains a large amount of different bioactive… READ MORE

Shilajit.
Shilajit is a resinous substance that is found that is forced out from between rock layers in the Himalayas during the heat of the summer months. It contains a mixture of herbs and minerals from decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries earlier. The actual composition changes depending… READ MORE

Turmeric. Part used: root.
Turmeric is an ancient spice native to India. It has been used for at least 600 years in traditional medicine and religious ceremonies. Turmeric is commonly used not just as a flavoring agent in cooking, but also as a paste applied to the skin or added to a bath. Turmeric is a sign of auspiciousness and… READ MORE

Bacopa monnieri

Part used: aerial parts

Bacopa, a native of India and Australia, also known as Brahmi, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centauries as a medical plant that rejuvenates intellect and memory.1 Recent research indicates that Bacopa may improve brain function involved in processing environmental inputs and enhancing learning and memory.2

Constituents & Mechanisms of Action

The main nootropic constituents of Bacopa are thought to be saponins known as bacosides.3 Other compounds include alkaloids, D-mannitol and apigenin.4

Bacopa exhibits multiple mechanisms by which it nourishes neurons, enhancing cognitive function.

One of the more interesting mechanisms is via increasing the number of connections between dendritic neurons in the brain.1 Dendritic neurons have a major role in integrating and processing incoming information,1 basically helping your brain to work better.

Bacopa also works to protect neurons via

  • anti-oxidant effects5,6
  • supporting the production of Aceytlcholine6 and preventing its breakdown;7 Acetylcholine is pivotal to focus, learning and memory
  • elevating levels of serotonin and dopamine6
  • protecting against neurotoxins such as methylmercury,8 paraquat,9 acrylamide10
  • increasing ATP (energy) in the brain11
  • improving blood flow to the brain12

In animal studies, Bacopa has been shown to improve:

  • spatial learning performance1
  • learning and Memory retention1,13
  • mood14
  • the response to stress15

Bacopa also displays longevity potential.6

Efficacy

Early human trials in healthy volunteers have indicated that Bacopa may decrease anxiety2 and improve:

  • speed of visual information processing2
  • rate of learning2
  • memory consolidation2,16 and recall17,18
  • decreases anxiety2
  • working memory7
  • attention and cognitive processing7

Safety

Side effects to Bacopa are rare.4 While long term studies are needed, the most common side effect of Bacopa is mild gastrointestinal upset.2

References

  1. Vollala, V.R., Upadhya, S. & Nayak, S. Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66, 663-671 (2011).
  2. Stough, C., et al. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156, 481-484 (2001).
  3. Sivaramakrishna, C., Rao, C.V., Trimurtulu, G., Vanisree, M. & Subbaraju, G.V. Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry 66, 2719-2728 (2005).
  4. Aguiar, S. & Borowski, T. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Res 16, 313-326 (2013).
  5. Anbarasi, K., Vani, G., Balakrishna, K. & Devi, C.S. Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats. Life Sci 78, 1378-1384 (2006).
  6. Rastogi, M., et al. Prevention of age-associated neurodegeneration and promotion of healthy brain ageing in female Wistar rats by long term use of bacosides. Biogerontology 13, 183-195 (2012).
  7. Peth-Nui, T., et al. Effects of 12-Week Bacopa monnieri Consumption on Attention, Cognitive Processing, Working Memory, and Functions of Both Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Systems in Healthy Elderly Volunteers. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012, 606424 (2012).
  8. Sumathi, T., Shobana, C., Christinal, J. & Anusha, C. Protective effect of Bacopa monniera on methyl mercury-induced oxidative stress in cerebellum of rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol 32, 979-987 (2012).
  9. Singh, M., Murthy, V. & Ramassamy, C. Standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera protect against MPP+- and paraquat-induced toxicity by modulating mitochondrial activities, proteasomal functions, and redox pathways. Toxicol Sci 125, 219-232 (2012).
  10. Shinomol, G.K., Raghunath, N., Bharath, M.M. & Muralidhara. Prophylaxis with Bacopa monnieri attenuates acrylamide induced neurotoxicity and oxidative damage via elevated antioxidant function. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 13, 3-12 (2013).
  11. Liu, X., et al. Neuroprotective effects of bacopaside I in ischemic brain injury. Restor Neurol Neurosci 31, 109-123 (2013).
  12. Kamkaew, N., Norman Scholfield, C., Ingkaninan, K., Taepavarapruk, N. & Chootip, K. Bacopa monnieri increases cerebral blood flow in rat independent of blood pressure. Phytother Res 27, 135-138 (2013).
  13. Singh, H.K. & Dhawan, B.N. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi) extract on avoidance responses in rat. J Ethnopharmacol 5, 205-214 (1982).
  14. Sairam, K., Dorababu, M., Goel, R.K. & Bhattacharya, S.K. Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 9, 207-211 (2002).
  15. Sheikh, N., et al. Effect of Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain monoamines in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 111, 671-676 (2007).
  16. Morgan, A. & Stevens, J. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Altern Complement Med 16, 753-759 (2010).
  17. Pase, M.P., et al. The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. J Altern Complement Med 18, 647-652 (2012).
  18. Neale, C., Camfield, D., Reay, J., Stough, C. & Scholey, A. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes. Br J Clin Pharmacol 75, 728-737 (2013).

Hemp Cannabinoids (non-THC)

Form used: aerial parts

Cannabis is one of the most ancient non-food crops cultivated by humans. It has been used in the Traditional Medicines of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and many regions of Asia.1 Only two to three generations ago, Cannabis was routinely used in Europe and the USA to treat a variety of conditions, from migraine to nausea to Parkinson’s disease.2

Constituents & Mechanism of Actions

The Cannabis sativa plant contains over 500 known compounds. 3 The most well-known group of these compounds are the phytocannabinoids, of which there are over 100 different types. These phytocannabinoidss can broadly divided into:

  • Psychoactive compounds such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  • Non-psychoactive compounds including Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabigerol (CBG) and other plant chemicals such as Cannabis terpenes.4

The phytocannabinoids all have an effect on the body’s own cannabinoid system, binding to the Endocannabinoid receptors found throughout the body.5

Omic Focus uses the THC-free Cannabinoids, CBD (Cannabidiol) and CBG (Cannabigerol), as well as Cannabis Terpenes in a synergistic mix.

The actions of CBD and CBG include:1

  • Neuroprotection (protecting nerves against damage) via anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune mechanisms1,6 as well as increasing glucose uptake by the neurons.7
  • Pain-relief
  • Anti-nausea
  • Anti-psychotic
  • Immune support
  • Reduction of the effects of stress8
  • Anti-anxiety effects9
  • Anti-inflammatory4
  • Sleep induction10

Plant terpenes have diverse effects11 including:

  • Anti-anxiety
  • Immune enhancing
  • Inhibition of the breakdown of Acetylcholine – pivotal to focus, learning and memory

The Cannabinoids and other plant compounds such as the Terpenes work synergistically together in the plant and when consumed by humans.4

Efficacy

CBD shows promise in treating anxiety, depression and psychosis.12 CBD may potentially also treat disorders of the central nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Epilepsy.1

Research on CBD, CBG and Cannabis Terpenes as nootropics are yet to be done. However, these cannabinoids are likely to improve brain health by

  • Decreasing anxiety
  • Protecting neurons
  • Regulating mood
  • Supporting a healthy stress response

Safety

CBD (without THC) is considered safe and well tolerated.13

References

  1. Giacoppo, S., Mandolino, G., Galuppo, M., Bramanti, P. & Mazzon, E. Cannabinoids: new promising agents in the treatment of neurological diseases. Molecules 19, 18781-18816 (2014).
  2. Russo, E.B. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga, science, and sobriquet. Chem Biodivers 4, 1614-1648 (2007).
  3. Solymosi, K. & Köfalvi, A. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora’s Box? Mini Rev Med Chem 17, 1223-1291 (2017).
  4. Russo, E. Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British journal of pharmacology 163, 1344-1364 (2011).
  5. Russo, E. & Guy, G.W. A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Med Hypotheses 66, 234-246 (2006).
  6. Gugliandolo, A., Pollastro, F., Grassi, G., Bramanti, P. & Mazzon, E. In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid. Int J Mol Sci 19(2018).
  7. Köfalvi, A., et al. Stimulation of brain glucose uptake by cannabinoid CB2 receptors and its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropharmacology 110, 519-529 (2016).
  8. Akirav, I. Cannabinoids and glucocorticoids modulate emotional memory after stress. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 37, 2554-2563 (2013).
  9. Campos, A.C. & Guimarães, F.S. Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199, 223-230 (2008).
  10. Babson, K.A., Sottile, J. & Morabito, D. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. Curr Psychiatry Rep 19, 23 (2017).
  11. Andre, C.M., Hausman, J.F. & Guerriero, G. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Front Plant Sci 7, 19 (2016).
  12. Campos, A.C., Moreira, F.A., Gomes, F.V., Del Bel, E.A. & Guimarães, F.S. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367, 3364-3378 (2012).
  13. Iseger, T.A. & Bossong, M.G. A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophrenia research 162, 153-161 (2015).

Cordyceps militaris

Part used: fruiting bodies

Cordyceps is a type of fungus that parasitizes insects. It is found throughout the world and is especially abundant in tropical forests and humid regions.1

Cordyceps has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of fatigue, low libido, as a recovery aid after illness, and to enhance physical strength and endurance.2 While there are many species of Cordyceps, C. sinesis and C. militaris have been the most used and the most studied with C. militaris being considered a suitable substitute for the more extensively studied C. sinesis.3

Constituents & Mechanism of Actions

Cordyceps species contain a wide variety of compounds including polysaccharides, sterols, and amino acids. However, it is thought that nucleosides including cordycepsin (3’-deoxyadenosine), adenine and inosine acting on the purinergic receptors are responsible for most of the effects in the human body.3

The compounds in Cordyceps have, amongst other actions been shown to be:1,3

  • Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Immune enhancing
  • Anti-tumor
  • Anti-diabetic
  • Anti-aging4
  • Energy enhancing5

In the laboratory, (in vitro) Cordyceps has also been shown to:

  • Inhibit the breakdown of Acetylcholine6 – critical for focus, learning and memory
  • Increase BDNF, promoting the survival of nerve cells7

While the exact mechanism are still being worked out, it is likely that all of these actions contribute to Cordyceps’ effects as a nootropic.8

Efficacy

Cordyceps has a long traditional use as a “powerhouse of energy.”9 However, modern clinical trials are only just starting to be done and indicate that in humans, Cordyceps increases aerobic capacity10,11

In animal studies, Cordyceps has been shown to:

  • Improve cognitive function12,13
  • Improve learning and memory14
  • Improve the response to stress15

Safety

Cordyceps is generally well tolerated. Mild side-effects such as nausea and diarrhoea have been described.16

References

  1. Liu, Y., et al. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015, 575063 (2015).
  2. Lin B, L.S. Cordyceps as an Herbal Drug. in Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clnical Aspects (ed. Benzie IFF, W.-G.S.) (CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton (Fl), 2011).
  3. Olatunji, O.J., et al. The genus Cordyceps: An extensive review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Fitoterapia 129, 293-316 (2018).
  4. Ji, D.B., et al. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phytother Res 23, 116-122 (2009).
  5. Dai, G., Bao, T., Xu, C., Cooper, R. & Zhu, J.S. CordyMax Cs-4 improves steady-state bioenergy status in mouse liver. J Altern Complement Med 7, 231-240 (2001).
  6. Tsai, C.H., Yen, Y.H. & Yang, J.P. Finding of polysaccharide-peptide complexes in Cordyceps militaris and evaluation of its acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. J Food Drug Anal 23, 63-70 (2015).
  7. Lee, S.H., et al. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils. J Exerc Rehabil 12, 69-78 (2016).
  8. Shashidhar, M.G., Giridhar, P., Udaya Sankar, K. & Manohar, B. Bioactive principles from Cordyceps sinensis: A potent food supplement – A review. J Funct Foods 5, 1013-1030 (2013).
  9. Ashraf, S.A., et al. Cordycepin for Health and Wellbeing: A Potent Bioactive Metabolite of an Entomopathogenic Cordyceps Medicinal Fungus and Its Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Potential. Molecules 25(2020).
  10. Steinkraus, D.C. & Whitfield, J.B. Chinese Caterpillar Fungus and World Record Runners. American Entomologist 40, 235-239 (1994).
  11. Xiao, Y., et al. Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly humans given a fermentation product of Cordyceps CS-4. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise – MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE 31(1999).
  12. He, M.T., et al. Protective role of Cordyceps militaris in Aβ(1-42)-induced Alzheimer’s disease in vivo. Food Sci Biotechnol 28, 865-872 (2019).
  13. Cai, Z.L., et al. Effects of cordycepin on Y-maze learning task in mice. European journal of pharmacology 714, 249-253 (2013).
  14. Gong, M.F., Xu, J.P., Chu, Z.Y. & Luan, J. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis sporocarp on learning-memory in mice]. Zhong Yao Cai 34, 1403-1405 (2011).
  15. Koh, J.H., Kim, K.M., Kim, J.M., Song, J.C. & Suh, H.J. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 26, 691-694 (2003).
  16. Hu, R., et al. Comparison of drug safety data obtained from the monitoring system, literature, and social media: An empirical proof from a Chinese patent medicine. PloS one 14, e0222077 (2019).

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring compound made in our bodies and found in foods such as tea and mushrooms. GABA can also be taken as a supplement.

GABA in the Body

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring amino acid that is made in the body. GABA is mostly known as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain while glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters are compounds that are found in neurons (brain cells). They act as chemical messengers, relying information from one neuron to the next resulting in an action. Neurotransmitters will either “fire up” a target cell (another neuron, muscle cell or hormone producing cell) or will dampen it down. The balance of the firing up (excitation) and the dampening down (inhibition) is of paramount importance in general and mental health. Too much firing up (excitation) can lead to agitation, distraction and to significant psychiatric disorders, while too much dampening down (inhibition) can lead to low mood and lethargy. Conversely too little inhibition leads to anxiety and insomnia.1 Furthermore, neurotransmitters affect each other. Scientists are still investigating the complex neurotransmitter system and how this affects behavior.2 GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter is thought to support the “ability to stay focused on selected features of objects with suppression of behavioral reactivity to other features” as well as the “speed of integration of an action in physical manipulations with objects with well-defined scripts of actions.”2 GABA is made in the neuron from glutamate with the help of Vitamin B6.3 It then sits in little vesicles (membrane sacs) waiting for a signal. Once the signal is received, GABA is released from the cell into the space between two cells (synapse). It then attaches to a receptor on the receiving cell where it inhibits firing. Although the brain is much more complex that a simple balance between neurotransmitters, in general the balance between excitation (glutamate) and inhibition (GABA) swings towards excitation, we may suffer anxiety,4 have difficulty sleeping and even difficulty concentrating.1 Activating GABA receptors has long been used in pharmacology and plant medicine to help with sleep.1,5 GABA is not only made in the brain but is also made in the gut but “good” gut bacteria in the gut microbiome.6 GABA seems send message from the gut to the brain via the vagus nerve.7

GABA in Food & Drink

GABA is found in tea, especially in white tea, cruciferous vegetables, spinach, tomato, mushroom and sprouted beans and grains.8

GABA as a Supplement

Taking GABA has been shown to have a positive effect on sleep.9 It also helps to decrease the stress that is induced by mental tasks,10 as well as supporting the nervous system, inducing relaxation. Supplementing GABA may “help to distribute limited attentional resources more efficiently.”11

References

  1. Savage, K., Firth, J., Stough, C. & Sarris, J. GABA-modulating phytomedicines for anxiety: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical evidence. Phytother Res 32, 3-18 (2018).
  2. Trofimova, I. & Robbins, T.W. Temperament and arousal systems: A new synthesis of differential psychology and functional neurochemistry. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 64, 382-402 (2016).
  3. Jewett BE, S.S. Physiology, GABA, (Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, 2020).
  4. Wong, C.G., Bottiglieri, T. & Snead, O.C., 3rd. GABA, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and neurological disease. Ann Neurol 54 Suppl 6, S3-12 (2003).
  5. Gottesmann, C. GABA mechanisms and sleep. Neuroscience 111, 231-239 (2002).
  6. Yunes, R.A., et al. GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota. Anaerobe 42, 197-204 (2016).
  7. Bravo, J.A., et al. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 16050-16055 (2011).
  8. Briguglio, M., et al. Dietary Neurotransmitters: A Narrative Review on Current Knowledge. Nutrients 10(2018).
  9. Yamatsu, A., et al. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 61, 182-187 (2015).
  10. Yoto, A., et al. Oral intake of γ-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks. Amino Acids 43, 1331-1337 (2012).

Hericium erinaceus

Part used: fruiting bodies and mycelium

Lion’s mane (Hericium erinaceus) is a fungus that grows on old or dead broadleaf trees. It is used as food and medicine in Asia and has a long history of use in traditional Chinese and Japanese Medicine as a restorative, promoting vigour and strength.1

Constituents & Mechanism of Actions

Lion’s Mane contains a large amount of different bioactive compounds2 including polysaccharides (e.g. β-glucan), terpenoids (e.g. hericenones, erinacines) and sterols.1

The actions of these compounds include:

  • Protection of nerves cells and stimulation of nerve growth3
  • Anti-oxidation1
  • Anti-inflammatory2
  • Anti-cancer effects4
  • Anti-biotic properties2
  • Anti-aging5
  • Beneficial effects on glucose and fat metabolism2

While the exact mechanisms are still unknown, ut is likely that the neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation effects of Lions’ Mane contribute to its actions in the brain.6

Efficacy

While further clinical studies are needed to confirm the actions in the body of Lion’s Mane, Animal studies have shown that Lion’s Mane can

  • Increase physical performance7
  • Improve the functioning of the hippocampus, a region of the brain responsible for processing memories and emotional responses8,9

Early studies in humans, indicate that Lion’s Mane can

  • Reduce anxiety and depression6
  • Improve cognitive function in those with mild cognitive impairment10

Safety

Lion’s mane is well tolerated and no adverse events have been reported, although those with mushroom allergy may need to avoid this.1

References

  1. Spelman, K., Sutherland, E. & Bagade, A. Neurological Activity of Lion’s Mane ( Hericium erinaceus ). Journal of Restorative Medicine 6, 19-26 (2017).
  2. Friedman, M. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds. J Agric Food Chem 63, 7108-7123 (2015).
  3. Lee, K.F., et al. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine. Int J Mol Sci 15, 15073-15089 (2014).
  4. Zan, X., et al. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Int J Biol Macromol 76, 242-253 (2015).
  5. Noh, H.J., et al. Chemical constituents of Hericium erinaceum associated with the inhibitory activity against cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 30, 934-940 (2015).
  6. Nagano, M., et al. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomed Res 31, 231-237 (2010).
  7. Liu, J., Du, C., Wang, Y. & Yu, Z. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus. Exp Ther Med 9, 483-487 (2015).
  8. Brandalise, F., et al. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017, 3864340 (2017).
  9. Ryu, S., Kim, H.G., Kim, J.Y., Kim, S.Y. & Cho, K.O. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain. Journal of medicinal food 21, 174-180 (2018).
  10. Mori, K., Obara, Y., Moriya, T., Inatomi, S. & Nakahata, N. Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. Biomed Res 32, 67-72 (2011).

Shilajit

Shilajit is a resinous substance that is found that is forced out from between rock layers in the Himalayas during the heat of the summer months. It contains a mixture of herbs and minerals from decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries earlier.1 The actual composition changes depending on the geographical region, environmental factors such as humidity and temperature, as well as the presence of plants, molds and bacteria.2 Shilajit is well-known to occur in the Himalayas but is also found in Afghanistan, the Caucasus and Ural ranges, as well as in the Northern Pollock ranges in Australia3 and in the Chilean Andes.4

Shilajit has been used for over 3000 years in traditional Hindu Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medicine in Tibet and India. It is described as a “Rasayana,” a rejuvenator3 supporting a youthful long lifespan.1 Its Sanskrit meaning is “conqueror of mountains and destroyer of weakness.”

Shilajit was also used secretly in the former USSR to enhance the mental and physical performance of Olympic athletes and special military forces.2

Constituents & Mechanisms of action

Humic substances make up 80-85% of Shilajit.5 These are organic compounds that occur in humus that makes up soil. Of these, Fulvic acid is the most well-known.4 Trace minerals including Phosphate, Silicon, Sulphur, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium and Iron make up the rest of the compound.5

Early studies indicated that Shilajit has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, analgesic, immunomodulator, anti-diabetic, lipid modulating, nootropic, anxiolytic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activity. It also stops the release of histamine.3 Shilajit seems to increase the production of ATP (energy) in cells, as well as increase Acetylcholine, necessary for cognitive functioning.2

Few human intervention studies have been undertaken. However, Shilajit shows promise in supporting ovulation and sperm production,1 and has been used as a potent aphrodisiac and memory enhancer.6 It is also an adaptogenic agent, improving the body’s response to stress.7 Indeed this was apparently extensively studies behind the iron curtain, although these studies have not been published.2 Interestingly, Shilajit has been shown to hasten healing of fractures.8

Safety

Initial animal studies have indicated that Shilajit is well tolerated with no adverse effects.2,9

References

  1. Chaudhary, S., Singh, A.K. & Dwivedi, K. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF SHILAJIT A REVIEW. 2(2016).
  2. Stohs, S.J. Safety and efficacy of shilajit (mumie, moomiyo). Phytother Res 28, 475-479 (2014).
  3. Khokra, S. Therapeutic Potentials of “Shilajit Rasayana”-A Review. 1(2009).
  4. Carrasco-Gallardo, C., Guzmán, L. & Maccioni, R.B. Shilajit: a natural phytocomplex with potential procognitive activity. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2012, 674142 (2012).
  5. Al-Salman, F., Ali Redha, A. & Al-Zaimoor, Z. Inorganic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Shilajit. (2020).
  6. Azhar, M., Quddusi, N., Akram, U., Anjum, A. & Hannan. Pharmacologial Activities Of Salajit (Asphaltum)-A Unani Drug a* a b b c d. (2011).
  7. Agarwal, S., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K. & Khar, R. Shilajit: A review. Phytother Res 21, 401-405 (2007).
  8. Sadeghi, S.M.H., et al. Efficacy of Momiai in Tibia Fracture Repair: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Altern Complement Med 26, 521-528 (2020).
  9. Kumar, S. SHILAJIT GOLD ARTICLE. (2020).

Curcuma longa

Parts used: rhizome

Turmeric is an ancient spice native to India. It has been used for at least 600 years in traditional medicine and religious ceremonies.1 Turmeric is commonly used not just as a flavoring agent in cooking, but also as a paste applied to the skin or added to a bath. Turmeric is a sign of auspiciousness and prosperity. It was brought to Europe by Arab traders.2

In Traditional Medicine, Turmeric is used for a wide range of effects including as a general tonic, for the treatment respiratory infections and peptic ulcers, as well as for arthritis and would healing.3

Constituents & Mechanisms of Action

Over 400 different compounds have been isolated from Turmeric.4

The polyphenols called Curcuminoids are the most active constituents of Turmeric and give it the yellow color that is so familiar in spice blends and curries. Turmeric also contains a number of essential oils,5 flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanin4 and polypeptides that display biological activity.6

Curcumin is the most prominent and well-studied of these bioactive compounds.7 It has a broad range of effects via multiple signaling pathways.1

Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-carcinogenic, hypoglycemic, anti-rhematic and hepato-protective8 and neuro-protective properties.4

It is perhaps best known for its anti-inflammatory effects.9 However, the anti-oxidant effects of curcumin may be associated with its cognitive enhancing effects by increasing glutathione (the master anti-oxidant), stimulating the growth of neurons and increasing Acetylcholine.10

Efficacy

Human clinical trials are limited. However, Turmeric / curcumin have been shown to be effective in

  • Inflammatory conditions such as Ulcerative colitis11
  • Depression12
  • Cognitive improvements such as memory and attention13
  • Improving inflammatory markers and energy14

Safety

Turmeric and curcumin are generally recognized as safe. Mild stomach upset may occur.15

References

  1. Gopinath, H. & Karthikeyan, K. Turmeric: A condiment, cosmetic and cure. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 84, 16-21 (2018).
  2. Rajagopalan, R. & Suvarna, Y. TURMERIC: THE SPICE KING OF HEALTH. (2015).
  3. Krishnaswamy, K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17 Suppl 1, 265-268 (2008).
  4. Ayati, Z., et al. Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Traditional Uses of Curcuma spp. and Pharmacological Profile of Two Important Species (C. longa and C. zedoaria): A Review. Curr Pharm Des 25, 871-935 (2019).
  5. Hwang, K.-W., et al. Levels of curcuminoid and essential oil compositions in turmerics (Curcuma longa L.) grown in Korea. Applied Biological Chemistry 59, 209-215 (2016).
  6. Ramírez-Tortosa, M.C., et al. Oral administration of a turmeric extract inhibits LDL oxidation and has hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 147, 371-378 (1999).
  7. Thomas-Eapen, N.E. Turmeric: the intriguing yellow spice with medicinal properties. Explore (NY) 5, 114-115 (2009).
  8. Mirzaei, H., et al. Phytosomal curcumin: A review of pharmacokinetic, experimental and clinical studies. Biomed Pharmacother 85, 102-112 (2017).
  9. Zdrojewicz, Z., Szyca, M., Popowicz, E., Michalik, T. & Śmieszniak, B. [Turmeric – not only spice]. Pol Merkur Lekarski 42, 227-230 (2017).
  10. Howes, M.R., Perry, N.S.L., Vásquez-Londoño, C. & Perry, E.K. Role of phytochemicals as nutraceuticals for cognitive functions affected in ageing. British journal of pharmacology 177, 1294-1315 (2020).
  11. Hanai, H., et al. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4, 1502-1506 (2006).
  12. Sanmukhani, J., et al. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res 28, 579-585 (2014).
  13. Small, G.W., et al. Memory and Brain Amyloid and Tau Effects of a Bioavailable Form of Curcumin in Non-Demented Adults: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled 18-Month Trial. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 26, 266-277 (2018).
  14. Kawasaki, K. & et al. Effect of a Combination of Hot Water Extract of Curcuma longa and Curcumin on Serum Liver Enzymes, Inflammatory Markers, and Emotional States in Healthy Participants with Moderately High Body Mass Index ―A Randomized, Double—blind, Placebo—controlled Clinical Trial―. 薬理と治療 45, 243-252 (2017).
  15. Soleimani, V., Sahebkar, A. & Hosseinzadeh, H. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances: Review. Phytother Res 32, 985-995 (2018).

Stack

The Omic Stack is the foundation of optimal health and performance.*

To start on the foundation of your optimal health and performance, Omic suggests the following:

1. Balance or Balance Femme. Take one capsule once daily, ideally with the first meal of the day. This helps to plug any nutritional insufficiency.

2. Restore Sleep Formula. Generally, one but occasionally two capsules can be used 30-60 mins before sleep. While encouraging usual sleep hygiene, using a sleep formula as necessary, can enhance sleep when necessary to support recovery and healing overnight. Restore should be used intermittently to encourage inherent sleep pathways.

3. Focus Nootropic. Usually, one capsule is taken when focus and concentration need support. Occasionally two capsules can be taken but avoid taking this within 4 to 6 hours of sleep. For maximum effect, it is best to take Focus intermittently rather than daily.

Omic female stack

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